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Perirhinal Cortex

Around the rhinal fissure / sulcus
Important for memory, especially novelty and identifying objects
Inputs from many sensory regions
In the temporal lobe

Generation of male C. elegans

Can increase % male progeny by:
-Mating hermaphrodites with males
-him-5 or him-8 mutations
-Heat shock treatment
-Exposure to ethanol
-Feeding him-14 dsRNA
-~1 day population food deprivation

C. elegans photosensory neurons


C. elegans anterior touch neurons


Anterior cingulate

Cortex that wraps around the frontal corpus callosum
Involved in a variety of cognitive tasks, most notably error detection, but also anticipation, attention, motivation, and emotion

Medial geniculate body

MGB; aka MGN (nucleus)
Input from inferior cortex
In the thalamus
Output to auditory cortex

Nucleus accumbens

Part of the striatum
Roles in learning, especially operant and addiction
Many inputs; outputs mostly to basal ganglia, ventral pallidum

MEK (protein)

Mapk / Erk Kinase (aka MAPKK, Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Kinase)
Activated by RAF
Activates ERK
Inhibited by U0126


Primary motor cortex
Just rostral of the central sulcus
Homuncular layout of motor inputs (toe medial, mouth lateral)
Sends signals to spinal cord via Betz neurons (among others)


Relating to nutrition or digestion

Hippocampal Circuits

Entorhinal cortex
->Perforant path to Dentate Gyrus
->Mossy fibers to CA3
->Schaeffer collaterals to CA1
-> to subiculum

C. elegans TWR

tap withdrawal response

Nguyen et al 2015
Leifer lab

Imaged 80+ neurons in head of each worm w/ GCAMP6s and RFP tag
Used spinning disk confocal
Correlated some neurons with activity, but could not identify any neurons


Extracellular-signal Regulated Kinase
aka MAPK1/2 (aka MAPK1 / ERK2)
An integration point for biochemical signals
Activated by MEK
Activates RSK, MSK, CREB

Ternary diagram

Back image: 

C. elegans GLR-1/2

AMPA-like glutamate receptor


Cortisol (humans), corticosterone (rodents)
Released from the adrenal gland in response to ACTH
Inhibits release of CRH and ACTH
Activates GRs
Generally, inhibits immune response and activates metabolism


Process where glucose is added to chains of glycogen for storage
Occurs in liver and muscle cells


Generates glucose from non-carbs (e.g. lactate, glycerol, amino acids)
Involves liver and kidneys
For energy use