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to defend or support a law, system, or principle so that it continues to exist
تقویت کردن، حمایت کردن از، تایید کردنحفظ کردن
we uphold the principles of democracy
ما هوادار اصول دموکراسی هستیم.
2. marble columns uphold the roof
ستون های مرمرین سقف را نگه می دارند.
3. he tried to uphold the morale of his soldiers
او کوشید که روحیه ی سربازان خود را حفظ کند.


The verb to ban means to forbid something from being or happening.
an official order that prevents something from being used or done
ban on
a total ban on cigarette advertising
I want to ban all outsiders from our discussion on security.


a medical operation to end a pregnancy so that the baby is not born alive SYN termination
She decided to have an abortion.
سقط جنین


cha‧os /ˈkeɪ-ɒs $ -ɑːs/ ●●○ noun [uncountable]
1 a situation in which everything is happening in a confused way and nothing is organized or arranged in order
The country was plunged into economic chaos.
: اشفتگی، هرج و مرج، شلوغی، بی نظمی کامل

a plunge into chaos
غوطه وری در هرج و مرج
3. in the midst of the chaos that followed the shooting, the attacker escaped
در میان شلوغ پلوغی پس از تیراندازی،ضارب فرار کرد.
4. we must cooperate to keep chaos at bay
باید برای جلوگیری از هرج و مرج همکاری کنیم.


when you do not understand what is happening or what something means because it is not clear
پریشانی، گیجی، اغتشاش، دست پاچگی

o stare somebody into confusion
با خیره شدن به کسی او را دستپاچه کردن
6. his repeated questions increased my confusion
پرسش های مکرر او سردرگمی مرا بیشتر کرد.
7. the news threw us into confusion
آن خبر ما را دستخوش سردرگمی کرد.


A provider is a person who gives someone something they need. If your parents both have jobs so they can feed you and buy you what you need, you can call them providers.


extremely worried and frightened about a situation, so that you cannot control your feelings

I spent three frantic days trying to get everything ready.
: اشفته، عصبانی، از کوره در رفته، بی عقل، اتشی دیوانه وار


When you undo something, you make it invalid, like when governments undo treaties they've signed in the past.

باطل کردن، خنثی کردن، خراب کردن، بی اثر کردن، باز کردن- جبران کردن


to make someone decide to do something
to make people say or do something as a reaction

He did it without any prompting from me.
[ترجمه M] بدون هیچ کمکی از جانب من ( انجامش داد / اون کار رو کرد )0|0
Amazingly - without any prompting - my husband actually said how nice I looked in my new dress!
[ترجمه امیررضا] به طور شگفت آوری شوهرم بدون هیچ تلقینی به من گفت:در این لباس جدیدم خوب به نظر میام3|4

اشاره تلقین
a cue given to a performer
cue اشاره


to laugh at someone or shout unkind things at them in a way that shows you do not respect them

. I didn't come here today to jeer: I want to give advice.
[ترجمه گوگل]امروز نیومدم اینجا که تمسخر کنم: میخوام نصیحت کنم
مسخره، ریشخند، طعنه




to bring back an old activity, belief, idea etc that has not existed for a long time

To resurrect is to bring someone back from the dead. You can also resurrect things that are inactive or out of use

cause to become alive again
“Slavery is already dead, and cannot be resurrected”
: زنده کردن، احیا کردن

they are trying to resurrect medieval beliefs
آنان می کوشند عقاید قرون وسطایی را دوباره زنده کنند.


High school graduation is a pivotal moment in most people's lives — an important point that signifies a shift in direction


being of crucial importance
“a pivotal event”

The Bank of England has a pivotal role in the London money market.

موثر، محوری، اساسی
، کلیدی، بسیارمهم، بنیادی


A legislature is a governing body that makes laws and can also amend or repeal them.
قانون گذار


if a government repeals a law, it officially ends that law

لغو، فسخ، الغاء، باز گردانی، لغو کردن
He plans to repeal a number of current policies.
[ترجمه مریم سالک زمانی] او در صدد الغای شماری از سیاست ( رویه ) های جاری است.


a list of problems or subjects that a government, organization etc is planning to deal with

دستور جلسه، برنامه ی کار، موادموردبحک، مواددستورجلسه

An agenda is a list of things to do



Legislative is an adjective that describes the act or process of passing laws. Congress is the legislative branch of the United States government. They're the ones who can pass bills, which the president can sign into law or veto.

ر: وابسته به قانونگذاری، وابسته به قوه ی مقننه، قانونی

and all the legislative powers herein stated
و کلیه ی اختیارات مقننه ای که در این سند ذکر شده است


Remember that aide with an "e" at the end is a noun. It refers to a person who helps or acts as an assistant, such as a nurse's aide or a presidential aide


He served as an aide to the former president.
[ترجمه گوگل]او به عنوان دستیار رئیس جمهور سابق خدمت می کرد.


At its most basic, strike means to hit. If you strike someone, you hit them with your hand or a weapon. If lightning strikes, it makes contact. If you strike out on a trip, you're "hitting" the road. If you strike gold, you've "struck it rich"!
ضربه زدن، خوردن، خطور کردن، اعتصاب کردن، خوردن به


The motion was defeated by 201 votes to 159.


to stop making progress or developing

متوقف شدن
I stalled من هنگ کردم


o ruin or end someone’s plans or chance of being successful – used especially in news reports
گریز، روزنه، دریچه

عقب نشینی کردن، در رفتن-خنثی کردن

Republican leaders quickly scuttled that effort


a short period of time between lessons at a school when children can go outdoors and play SYN break British English
Her favorite things at school are music and recess.
تنفس دادن یا اعلام کردن


if a meeting, parliament, law court etc adjourns, or if the person in charge adjourns it, it stops for a short time
It was almost noon when the meeting adjourned.
adjourn for/until
Congress has adjourned for the November elections.
His trial was adjourned until May.
به تعویق افتادن


to shout or say something very loudly,
داد زدن
فریاد زدن
Help me!’ she yelled hysterically.
I yelled out, ‘Here I am!’


a large room in a public building used for important meetings
the council chamber


When you backpedal, you completely change your position or opinion. You might backpedal on your promise to buy your friend lunch when you see how expensive the restaurant is.
دبه کردن

They are backpedalling on the commitment to cut taxes.

از موضع خود برگشتن


used to say that something happens or is true even though something else might have prevented it SYN in spite of
Despite all our efforts to save the school, the authorities decided to close it.


بدقت، از نزدیک، بطور محدود، بزور، زورکی


an action that tries to prevent something bad from happening
The road blocks were a counter to terrorist attacks in that area.
to Counter China -
در جهت مخالف، در روبرو-مقابل


بستن، سفت شدن، محکم کردن


a strong relationship between people, groups, or countries
Biden and Kishida Agree to Tighten
Military and Economic Ties to Counter

range of moves

مجوعه ای از اقدامات

further enhance

further بیشتر
enhance بهبود بخشیدن
further enhanceبهبود بخشیدن بیشتر
تقویت بیشتر


a country that agrees to help or support another country in a war
a meeting of the European allies
هم پیمان، متحد،


behaving in an angry threatening way, as if you want to fight or attack someone
پرخاشگر، مهاجم، متجاوز
China’s aggressive actions

pomp-filled ceremony

مراسم پر شکوه
pomp شکوه، جاه مجلل
filled پر مملو


the respect that you, your family, your country etc receiveonor has many uses, all of them good. If you are called a man of honor, you are respected. If someone honors you, they recognize and award you for your achieve

ments. from other people, which makes you feel proud

افتخار بزرگداشت



make a point

ثبات کردنِ یک نکته
درستیِ نکته ای را نشان دادن
ثابت کردنِ یک موضوع یا مطلب

همیشه حواسم هست که
همیشه مواظبم که

He made a point of spending Saturdays with his children.
I always make a point of being early.


to formally state an opinion, belief, or intention again, especially when someone has questioned you or expressed a doubt

مجددا تاکید کردن. مجددا تایید کردن. مجددا اعلام کردن

in terms of

Our goods compete in terms of product quality, reliability and above all variety.
[ترجمه مهدی صادقی] کالا های ما بر اساس کیفیت ، اعتماد و از همه مهمتر تنوع ( با دیگران ) به رقابت می پردازند
از نظر، از دیدگاه


سابقه، نمونه، ماقبل
: روال، رسم، سنت
he set the precedent of giving tips here
او رسم انعام دادن را در اینجا متداول کرد.
2. there is no precedent for what you have done
عملی که شما انجام داده اید بی سابقه است.

declaration of independence

) اعلامیه ی استقلال

stave off

طفره رفتن، به تاخیر انداختن، (تا مدتی) جلوگیری کردن
to prevent something bad from happening or affecting you for a short period of time
The company is restructuring in an attempt to stave off bankruptcy.


رنج، ازمایش، کوشش، امتحان، محنت، مرافعه، محاکمه، دادرسی

cover up

سرپوش گذاشتن، افشا نکردن 3- نهان سازی، لاپوشانی


مزایده، پیشنهاد،
تلاش و کوشش

civil action

دائخواست مدنی

appeals court

دادگاه تجدید نظر